Laboratory

Behgam has some laboratory devices and we are committed to ensuring that our testing facilities, staff, equipment and processes always meet the highest professional standard. You can see list of our facilities as below:

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is one of the most versatile analytical methods for elemental analysis of solids and liquids. Elements from boron to uranium can be analyzed in a wide variety of samples with high accuracy, precision and reliability. The technique and the analytical methods are mature enough to establish clear qualitative and quantitative characterization of diversified materials. Modern technological developments have helped to include XRF into standard test methods for analytical laboratories (ASTM and ISO norms for example) by virtue of its simplicity, flexibility, affordability and reliability. The cost per analysis is clearly advantageous over many traditional wet chemical and other spectroscopic methods.
The specific surface area and the pore size distribution are fundamental parameters for the characterization of solids. Properties such as porosity, strength, hardness, permeability, separation selectivity, corrosion, thermal stress resistance, etc. can be directly correlated to the porous structure of a material. These properties can be easily investigated by the physisorption technique which can be carried out by surface area analyzer. Clean solid surfaces adsorb surrounding gas molecules and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller theory (BET) provides a mathematical model for the process of gas sorption. This physical adsorption of a gas over the entire exposed surface of a material and the filling of pores is called physisorption and is used to measure total surface area and pore size analysis of nanopores, micropores and mesopores. The specific surface area of a powder is estimated from the amount of nitrogen adsorbed in relationship with its pressure, at the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen under normal atmospheric pressure. The measurement process of physisorption involves chilling the surface of the measured powder, using nitrogen to adhere to the surface -adsorption, then taking the chilling away – leading to desorption. This process can be applied one time for a single point measurement, or several times for a multi-point measurement. In general, a surface area result obtained by the multipoint method using nitrogen as the adsorbate is somewhat more reliable than a single point measurement.
Any solid material that contains cavities, channels or interstices may be regarded as porous. Porosity influences the physical exchanges and chemical reactivity of solids with gases and liquids. Porosity is of great industrial concern as it influences the behavior of gas adsorption and fluid flow within materials. Examples of materials that porosity is of importance include catalysts, construction materials, ceramics, pharmaceutical products, metal powders, membranes, active components in batteries and fuel cells, and oil and gas bearing reservoirs. BJH analysis can be utilized to define pore area and specific pore volumes through adsorption and desorption techniques. Using BJH analysis you can conclude pore size distribution independent of external area due to particle size of the sample.
The conversion efficiency of a catalytic converter is highly dependent on its operating temperature, with almost no effect when cold. So, the warm-up transient of the catalyst after engine cold start is desired to be as short as possible. To describe the temperature at which the catalytic converter efficiency increases above 50% the term Light-Off Temperature (LOT) is commonly used. The Lambda is set at 1±0.02. The light-off test is carried out from 200-450oC at a temperature ramp of 15oC/min. The inlet and outlet concentrations of THC/NOx/CO are collected.
Thermal deactivation occurs at high temperatures and is strongly aggravated by exhaust gas property changes. High temperature gradients can lead to damage of the substrate and impact washcoat adhesion. Both rich and lean changes are responsible for local exothermic reactions in the catalyst, due to the storage characteristic needed for normal operation. Thermal aging causes to various results such as Reduction of the surface area and pore volume of the washcoat, Precious metal agglomeration of the active centers, Oxygen storage material destruction.
Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is an atomic spectroscopic technique in which a small sample is placed inside a graphite tube that is then resistively heated to accomplish sample desolvation (for liquid samples), ashing or charring (to decompose the sample and volatilize some of the matrix) and finally atomization. The light from a line source characteristic of the element being determined is passed longitudinally through the tube and the absorbance resulting from the presence of free analyte atoms in the gas phase is measured. Graphite furnace atomic absorption (AA) is generally considered an ultratrace and microtrace analytical technique with limits of detection (LODs) in the low picogram range, precision of a few percent (relative standard deviation) and a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude. In addition to its excellent sensitivity, it is unique in its ability to handle microsamples including aqueous solutions, viscous liquids, slurries and even solids. In general, there is considerable literature detailing methods and procedures for the determination of a variety of analytes in complex matrices that can be used by the analyst to apply the approach to new, complex analytical needs. When used correctly, this analytical tool can provide precise, accurate analysis for a wide range of sample types.
ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry) is a technique in which the composition of elements in (mostly water-dissolved) samples can be determined using plasma and a spectrometer. The technique has been commercially available since 1974 and thanks to its reliability, multi-element options and high throughput, it has become a widely applied in both routine research as in more specific analysis purposes. The solution to analyze is conducted by a peristaltic pump though a nebulizer into a spray chamber. The produced aerosol is lead into an argon plasma. Plasma is the forth state of matter, next to the solid, liquid and gaseous state. In the ICP-OES the plasma is generated at the end of a quarts torch by a cooled induction coil through which a high frequency alternate current flows. As a consequence, an alternate magnetic field is induced which accelerated electrons into a circular trajectory. Due to collision between the argon atom and the electrons ionization occurs, giving rise to a stable plasma. The plasma is extremely hot, 6000-7000 K. In the induction zone it can even reach 10000 K. In the torch desolvation, atomization and ionizations of the sample takes place. Due to the thermic energy taken up by the electrons, they reach a higher "excited" state. When the electrons drop back to ground level energy is liberated as light (photons). Each element has an own characteristic emission spectrum that is measured with a spectrometer. The light intensity on the wavelength is measured and with the calibration calculated into a concentration.
By far the most important physical property of particulate samples is particle size. Measurement of particle size distributions is routinely carried out across a wide range of industries and is often a critical parameter in the manufacture of many products. Measuring particle size distributions and understanding how they affect your products and processes can be critical to the success of many manufacturing businesses. Technology type of this device is laser diffraction in range 0.01-3500 µm.
The sample is dissolved in aqua-regia and palladium is precipitated with dimethylglyoxime. If present, silver is separated as silver chloride. The palladium dimethylglyoxime compound is converted to metallic palladium by ignition and the latter is determined gravimetrically.
The most common method to evaluate the durability of catalytic converter is the hot vibration test (also called, more casually, the “hot shake test”). Most of vehicle manufacturers have their internal specifications for such tests. Generally, the converter is placed on a vibration table of controlled vibration acceleration and frequency. Hot gas of controlled temperature flows through the converter during the test. The source of gas could be an engine or a fuel burner. Secondary air can be added to control oxygen content, temperature, or flow rate. Hot vibration is a destructive test, where the converter integrity and the extent and nature of damage are evaluated after a prescribed test time. Hot vibration tests might include various modifications, such as switching between hot and cold gas flow (thermal cycling) or periodic spraying of water onto the hot outside converter walls.
Gas chromatography (GC) is an analytical technique used to separate and analyze samples that can be vaporized without thermal decomposition. GC is used as one test to help identify components of a liquid mixture and determine their relative concentration. It may also be used to separate and purify components of a mixture. Additionally, gas chromatography can be used to determine vapor pressure, heat of solution, and activity coefficients. Industries often use it to monitor processes to test for contamination or ensure a process is going as planned. Chromatography can test blood alcohol, drug purity, food purity, and essential oil quality. GC may be used on either organic or inorganic analytes, but the sample must be volatile. Ideally, the components of a sample should have different boiling points. The sample is mixed with a solvent and is injected into the gas chromatograph. Typically the sample size is small -- in the microliters range. Although the sample starts out as a liquid, it is vaporized into the gas phase. An inert carrier gas is also flowing through the chromatograph. This gas shouldn't react with any components of the mixture. Common carrier gases include argon, helium, and sometimes hydrogen. The sample and carrier gas are heated and enter a long tube, which is typically coiled to keep the size of the chromatograph manageable. At the end of the tube is the detector, which records the amount of sample hitting it. The signals from the detector are used to produce a graph, the chromatogram, which shows the amount of sample reaching the detector on the y-axis and generally how quickly it reached the detector on the x-axis (depending on what exactly the detector detects). The chromatogram shows a series of peaks. The size of the peaks is directly proportional to the amount of each component, although it can't be used to quantify the number of molecules in a sample. Usually, the first peak is from the inert carrier gas and the next peak is the solvent used to make the sample. Subsequent peaks represent compounds in a mixture. In order to identify the peaks on a gas chromatogram, the graph needs to be compared a chromatogram from a standard (known) mixture, to see where the peaks occur.
Catalyst substrate is crucial component influencing performance, robustness, and durability of catalytic converter systems. Design targets for ceramic catalyst substrates include High geometric surface area (GSA), Large open frontal area (OFA), Low thermal mass and heat capacity, High use temperature, Low coefficient of thermal expansion, Good coatability, Washcoat compatibility, Strength and oxidation resistance. A large positive CTE means that the body expands significantly when heated, a negative CTE means that the body contracts when its temperature increase. When the material heating is not uniform, as may be caused by non-uniform gas velocity or catalyst exotherms, some parts of the catalyst support are expanding more than others, thus straining the material between the hotter and cooler regions. High CTE coefficient in combination with high temperature gradients will cause high internal strain. Therefore, it is desirable for catalyst support materials to have low thermal expassion coefficients. Cellular cordierite substrate typically have lower CTE values along the axial direction of the part. Higher CTE coefficients are measured along the tangential direction which makes the tangential direction less resistance to thermal shock than the axial direction. One of the key durability requirements of ceramic catalyst supports is an adequate thermal shock resistance to survive temperature gradients. Due to heat losses from the catalytic converter, the center region of the substrate experiences higher temperatures than its periphery, which induces tensile stresses in the outer region (the center region may experience tensile stresses during cool-down). The magnitude of these stresses depends on the CTE, the E-modulus and the radial temperature gradient. These stresses must be kept well below the modulus of rupture of the support to prevent material failure. The thermal shock parameter defined as the ratio of mechanical strain tolerance to thermal strain imposed by the radial temperature gradient is often used as a relative measure of the material ability to withstand steep temperature gradients. The higher thermal shock, the better the thermal shock capability of the material. In gasoline applications, temperature of the center and peripheral region of the substrate are 825°C and 450°C respectively. Thermal shock may be computed for both of the axial and tangential directions. Substrate strength is important for withstanding packing loads and subsequent use in the vehicle exhaust stream with the related exposure to engine vibrations, road shock and temperature gradients. High strength substrates are desirable for robust catalytic converter systems. The strength of the ceramic material itself is controlled by the type of intra and intercrystalline bonding, the porosity, pore size distribution and flaw population. The strength of the cellular structure of the substrate is further determined by its dimensions

Headquarter

Main office : No.4, Banafshe Alley, West Monuchahri St,North Bahar St, West Ferdows Blvd, Tehran, Iran.

Factory : No.4, shariati St, Shahid BaBaie Blvd, Standard Sq, Caspian Industrial Park, Qazvin, Iran.

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